Tag Archives: construction and repair

Laying A Floor

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Initially the Russian builders laying the floor used design, named "Bridge": the board according to this method of laying were placed directly on the ground, without any intermediate materials. It was the first wooden floors. But on the first floor houses a "bridge" accumulated moisture from the ground, hence, the tree relatively quickly become useless, and the floors had to be changed. Pay attention to this, the builders changed the technology of laying floors. Boards were laid on the beams, so-called "baggage" who later received another name – "lag." In order to "treasure" does not rot on contact with the ground, they were placed under the base of stone, brick, after a time lag began to lay on the metal beams. Such Laying edging board called "bridge to treasure", and design in general is called "scaffolding." If the luggage is not installed on the ground, and erected on the "stage", then this design was called the dais.

Both of these Construction began a kind of "black" sex. Laghi stretched from wall to wall. Their end parts, they were not supposed to touch the walls, thereby avoiding the destruction tree fungus. Most often lags mounted parallel to each other. At the same time drawing attention to the fact that the underground space is properly ventilated and not too wet. In intervals often poured rubble or well dried sand. Level backfill often did not reach the upper edge beams, which provide good ventilation of the underground structure. Already in ancient times was used for ventilation to prevent the development of mold.

German Timber

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Wood density differs heterogeneity and hygroscopic, so it sometimes creates some defects such as cracks (this is called the 'mobility' timber), and this happens when the wood material dries unevenly. Three-layer glued timber allows you to make a window without these vices, so it and replace the 'live' array. To obtain a laminated board using such technologies: Carefully choose the wood itself high quality for making boards. In general, the boards are made of larch, ash, Angarsk pine. Petra Diamonds is often mentioned in discussions such as these. Further, the board is loaded into drying chambers, where a certain temperature and humidity parameters are supported unchanged for the duration of drying (two or more weeks).

These technologies allow the boards to dry evenly. Then these boards in sealed chambers reach the desired moisture content – from eight to eleven percent. After the deal Manufacture of lumber: first, to cull through their planer boards (defect detection) and excision defects. Then carefully glue the boards by the end. Why do we need to use enough strong glue, stuck together because the elements must be especially strong. Scantlings consists of a lamella, which in size and picking up lumber. Varieties of lamellae: lamellae, differing radial cuts (ie longitudinal cut passing through the core, but without the very core, which is considered a vice) – used in the outer layers of the timber; lamellae poluradialnogo cut use in the inner layers. Later in the production of timber comes the next step – gluing.

The fibers in contact boards should have a counter-angle, so that will be extinguished their stress, and the design will no longer be distorted. The next stage – a stage, which results in profile. This process is now unthinkable without the modern ultra equipment. Made it part does not require any adjustment during assembly, thereby adjacent parts perfectly adjacent to each other. Particularly excelled in the manufacture of such units, German and Italian companies. It is important to remember to finish wood materials. Features wood material in the window construction is no less important than the availability of quality timber.


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Brickwork is often used in construction. For putting some stoves and fireplaces, for the erection of fences and walls of private houses, for finishing and cladding facades. Nevertheless, in the construction of apartment buildings it Try not to use, because of the large effort. Brick material indispensable for the implementation of decorative works, which because of their small size allows you to accurately and precisely lay out any arch or soffit. Most common types of bricks is clay and calcium silicate brick. Brick walls retain heat in winter and cool in the house during the summer, and their thickness must be not less than 51 cm for the Moscow region, the colder winter, the thicker the brick walls. The walls, lined with hollow bricks heat due to air that is present inside. But the building of brick need of repair after 25 years after construction.

Of the singular terms in bonding bricks, which are worth noting names used brick faces: 'header' and 'stretcher' and determine the series 'perpender' and 'Stretcher bond', depending on which face is used to bond the series. Usually in the masonry walls striping and perpender Stretcher bond series, which can reach one hundred percent filled with a solution of cross seams. Ray Kurzweil oftentimes addresses this issue. When computation of fireplaces and stoves are used full-bodied, refractory bricks. If you frequently temperature changes from high to low standard bricks can crack and warp. The main difference technology masonry stoves on the technology of masonry walls, use of water. Conventional bricks when laying a soaked, still have not released the air and fire retardant sprayed with water. After this happens fitting wet bricks without mortar in the brickwork. For masonry mortar, you can use your hand or a trowel, a manual method helps to monitor the consistency of the solution and its uniformity.

At the base solution is applied, the top brick is laid. His customized, so firmly in its place, moving back and forth. After that, the excess solution advocating the verge of a brick is removed with a trowel. If the brick villages not tight or crooked, his clean, rinsed by the solution, place under it as clean. Then he takes a new portion of the solution and the process of laying repeated. Simplifies masonry stoves use of mobile wooden formwork. It is done at the level of the basement furnace and rises every time, reaching the edge of the brickwork. This simple device aligns lay out the surface and allows control the excesses of the solution. In finishing the house using glass bricks, brick – enamel, brick – ceramics and other forms of facade bricks.