Mechanization – a replacement for human labor fizicheskokogo machine. If mechanized both core and ancillary activities, it may be a prerequisite for the introduction of automation. So, if in our example automated unloading of fuel and its transportation, as well as all other operations, including "issuance" of electricity to consumers, all this happens without human intervention, thermal power plant considered complex automated. Complex automated plant (or company) has a higher economic and technical indices than a manual, and the products will be of higher quality. In our for example, the Integrated Automated power management functions manager is not involved. They perform an automatic device.
This unit replaced the man behind the board, replaces the knowledge, experience, Finally, the intuition of man. And all these features and quality are hidden behind the understated a term that reflects the essence of the device – an automatic control system (ACS). And the main thing in it – a computer machine (VM). It we take a closer look. What is information and how it is used. The concept of "governance" has many faces.
About him argue the specialists, when mechanization and automation of designing a rolling machine or a furnace, a spaceship or bakery. Command and control during maneuvers or on the battlefield is unlikely to manage a nuclear reactor. If the management of the troops have to take into account their size, armament, training and psychological state soldiers, as well as roads, topography, even weather, then the process of managing nuclear reactor is determined by physical and chemical processes therein, specifications of equipment, qualified operators etc. And yet, despite their dissimilarity, the different management processes can be considered under a unified point of view, if the handle some common cases for different concept. This concept – information. Even the ancient experts say: we can so much as know. Only accurate information, knowledge about the managed objects define our opportunities wisely, without error control it. Sensitive organs, gauges, meters get basic information about the object. Information is then transmitted via communication channels (telephone, telegraph lines or radio) to the device, which should on the basis of information received a decision, ie, Recycle this information to the control signal. A control signal is used to impact on the managed object. Center of the acs, its "brain" will be the managing computer, which can be used to manage the most different processes. Another very important fact: the amount of data transferred is not determined by the amount of energy expended in its transmission. One signal is transmitted with little energy expenditure, can carry a very large and moschny role in the mechanization and automation processes. For example, red light, flaring, can stop a huge train. Information can take many forms. For example, in an incubator – apparatus, maintains a constant temperature, what happens is the inclusion, then turn off the circuit, and information about this process has two opposite signal "Enabled" – "Off". A voltage of the power plant is constantly changing, the character is a constant signal. Sometimes the information is a number: the number of products or parts, product cost, etc.