Conveying information between different network segments, routers analyze the packet header and try to calculate the optimal way of moving the package. The router is able to determine the path to arbitrary segment of the network, using information from the routing table that allows you to create a common connection to the Internet or WAN. Routers allow you to make delivery of the package in the fastest way that allows you to increase the capacity of large networks. If a network segment is overloaded, the data stream will follow a different path, network topology and the order of connecting computers and other elements in the network called the network topology. Topology can be compared with the card network, which displays the workstations, servers and other networking equipment.
The selected topology affects the overall capacity of network protocols and network equipment to be used, as well as the possibility of further expansion of the network physical topology – a description of how the physical elements will be connected to the network. A logical topology defines routes packets of data within the network. There are five types of network topologies: global bus, star, ring, total bus In this case, all computers are connected to a single cable, called a data bus. In this package will be accepted by all computers that are connected to this network segment. Network performance is largely determined by the number of connected computers to a shared bus. The more of these computers, the slower network. Furthermore, this topology can cause a variety of conflicts that arise when multiple computers simultaneously attempting to convey information to the network.